Saturday, March 14, 2020

Compare and contrast Hobbess and Freuds view on human natu essays

Compare and contrast Hobbess and Freuds view on human natu essays Sigmund Freud, an Austrian physician, and Thomas Hobbes, an English philosopher, were two important men who played roles in defining human nature. Freud and Hobbes labeled the sum of qualities and traits shared by all people. Freud had revolutionary ideas on how the human mind works and Freud's theories have brought new advances in child education, education, and sociology. Most people in Western society view human behavior at least in Freudian terms. However, Hobbes was more concerned with a political theory. He denied that people are naturally social beings. Nonetheless, Hobbess and Freuds ideas compare and contrast in many ways. Hobbes argued instead that people's most basic motives are selfish. People, he concluded, are selfish. They are moved mainly by desire for power and by fear of others. So without an all-powerful ruler to rule them, their lives would be hellish. Hobbes believed the government was created to protect people form their own selfishness and evil. He believed that there was a constant competition between people and that people cannot be trusted. He asked essential and challenging questions about the relationship between science and religion and the nature and limitations of political power. To Freud, human beings were sexual creates from birth to adulthood. He saw the personalities of human beings as being determined by limited physical and mental forces in a limited world. He was hostile to religion and spoke of it as an illusion. Freud wished to see a civilization full of kind people. Freud divided the mind into three parts the id, the ego, and the superego. The id is the source of such instincts such as desire for sexual pleasure. The ego resolves conflicts between instincts and external reality. The superego is a person's conscience. All people have some conflict among the three parts of the mind, but certain people have more conflict than others. Freud observed that many patients behaved ac...

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Institutional Racism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Institutional Racism - Essay Example This does not mean that Lockwood's theory of 'deferential worker' of the institution does not exist. One of the best definitions says: "The collective failure of an organisation to provide an appropriate and professional service to people because of their colour, culture or ethnic origin which can be seen or detected in processes; attitudes and behaviour which amount to discrimination through unwitting prejudice, ignorance, thoughtlessness and racist stereotyping which disadvantages minority ethnic people." From the Macpherson report - http://www.tuc.org.uk/sltg/institutional.htm It is also called Structural Racism and Systemic Racism that can be practised in institutions, and public organisations. Racial bias, prejudiced notions, bigotry belonging to the earlier century, blind beliefs that colour and creed make difference, race-restricted discriminations, etc. come under this category because there was role-allocation for centuries depending on racial differences. "In race relations the deterministic and ascriptive basis of role-allocation is crucial. If individuals or groups act on the assumption that genetically determined racial differences exist and govern social behaviour the consequences for society are the same, even if the assumption has no scientific foundation in human biology," Richmond (1972, p.1). Role- allocation has led to systematic discrimination of a particular race, separating it for security purposes, keeping the entire race away from the main stream, profiling such races for mean jobs, keeping them as slaves or bonded labourers, preventing their educational or professional advancement, not allowing them to take advantage of popular or state help, and leaving them out of the national policies are symptoms of institutional racism. "Institutionalised racism is an indirect and largely invisible process which can be compared with cloning and the glass ceiling. It is a term encompassing the, often unintentional, barriers and selection/promotion procedures which serve to disadvantage members of ethnic minority groups" http://www.hrmguide.co.uk/hrm/racism.html In UK, sometimes Media3 and Police Force4 are dubbed as racist institutions. But it need not be always true and correct. In the murder of Stephen Lawrence, this belief was countered as "the tragic murder of a young man and the distress of his bereaved parents have been exploited by pressure groups intent on establishing credibility for their claim that black people in Britain are victims who should be given preferential treatment"5. In this context, the institution is considered as racist and not the individual, who might be working according to the highest ethical and accepted standards, without any partiality towards any race or colour. This type of racism could also be a part of public sector culture. In The Times, Kwame McKenzie, while commenting on institutional racism in mental health institutions, says that mental health system knows the existence of racial indifference in treatment, but had been unable to do much about it, having started to address the problem only recently and the entire system has to raise up to eradicate it, although the individual workers are not racists in any way6. "However, in general, black British patients get worse treatment for mental health problems than white British patients. They are more likely to be treated against their will, more likely to be treated with drugs rather than psychotherapy and more likely to be treated on locked psychiatric wards" http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,6-2012844,00.html It has been an acknowledged fact that media, mostly has the problem of imbalanced reporting of high profile

Monday, February 10, 2020

Global Health and Sustainability Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 6000 words

Global Health and Sustainability - Essay Example As the paper stresses the concept of ‘sustainability’ implies enduring the capacity of protecting human health through contributing towards the environment and society. In this regard, the implementation of new sustainable interventions will ensures support to poor economic countries for achieving overall benefits with respect to global healthcare. In addition to this, sustainable healthcare intervention aims at improving knowledge about preserving water, sanitation as well as hygiene by introducing healthcare programs. In the current scenario, adequate initiatives have been taken by the healthcare industries in order to bring the sustainability in operational process for enhancing the global health care domain. As the discussion declares Chlamydia is one of the common ‘sexually transmitted disease (STD)’ in human body. The disease is spread by Chlamydia trachomatis bacteria and affects the health condition of people. The term ‘Chlamydia’ has originated from Greek word, which implies ‘cloak’. Moreover, Chlamydia infection belongs to the bacterial family Chlamydiaceae. The infection caused by Chlamydia can be a vital cause for genital as well as eye disease in human beings. The bacteria Chlamydia can be found inside human body or cells. However, infection caused by Chlamydia often depicts to be symptomless, which goes untreated. In this regard, it can be mentioned that Chlamydia often denotes a silent feature as the patients of this disease are experiencing minimum symptoms

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Psychological Testing Article Analysis Essay Example for Free

Psychological Testing Article Analysis Essay Psychological testing is a tool to properly assess behaviors and characteristics of individuals. Results of psychological testing are often presented through statistical tables that allow evaluation and comparison of the different variables tested against set norms. This paper will review an article lifted from the Health Psychology journal and determine the appropriateness of the psychological testing instruments used in the study. For this purpose, the article chosen is â€Å"Evolution of Biopsychosocial Model: Prospects and Challenges for Health Psychology† written by Jerry Suls and Alex Rothman in 2004. Article Summary The Biopsychosocial Model has enabled health psychologists in the search for a multi-level, multi-system approach to human functioning (Suls Rothman, 2004). This idea is based on the premise that there is an intrinsic relationship between what is physical, psychological and social. However according to the research of Suls and Rothman, there are marked challenges that the model faces that have essentially impeded the progress of its full potential as a research, intervention and practice tool. The article’s ultimate goal was to determine what can be done to ensure the continuous refinement and evolution of the biopsychosocial model (Suls Rothman, 2004). As a means to determine the viability of the biopsychosocial model as a multi-faceted instrument to help explain an individual’s health psychology, Suls and Rothman resorted to the use of statistical tests in psychology. By conducting frequency tests and factor analysis, the team of Suls and Rothman came up with a list of recommendations in the model’s areas of research, training, policy and funding, and practice. These recommendations are to further utilization of the links between biological, psychological, social, and even macro-cultural variables, with the ultimate aim of enhancing health (2004). Through the tests five issues were also identified to be crucial in the progress of the biopsychosocial model as a legitimate approach to health assessment. The article concluded by highlighting the various advancements in health psychology, particularly with the biopsychosocial model. However, Suls and Rothman stressed that the full potential of the model in terms of the ability to advance the theory and practice remain untapped (2004). Only a strong commitment to the model and it implications would establish long-term success of its involvement in health psychology (Suls Rothman, 2004). Psychological Testing Instruments Used The article of Suls and Rothman did not explicitly discuss the test they used to assess the biopsychosocial model. In spite of this, it can be deduced from the tables they presented and the discussion of their findings that they relied on statistical tests in psychology in data-gathering. Statistical tests are commonly used to analyze results of a psychological research (Green D’Oliveria, 1982). In fact many social sciences, particularly psychology, necessitate the use of statistical inference to explain findings (Meehl, 1967). In this particular article where the bulk of the fact-finding are based on peer research, two statistical tests in psychology were used. Suls and Rothman conducted frequency tests two times in their research study. Frequency tests are the most helpful tool when comparing data against each other (Lane, 2004). Through frequency tests, marked differences in independent variables are clearly distinguished. To measure the progression of the biopsychosocial model as a accepted concept in health psychology, Suls and Rothman conducted a frequency test on the use of the term â€Å"biopsychosocial† in journals and articles of Medline from 1974 to 2001, totals of which were group into a 3-year period interval (2004). Suls and Rothman likewise applied a frequency test to measure the integration of behavioral approaches to medical science in the study (2004). They reviewed articles in 4 major medical journals namely New England Journal of Medicine, Lancet, Journal of the American Medical Association, and the Annals of Internal Medicine between the years of 1974 and 2001 (Suls and Rothman, 2004). Once again, they grouped the results into 3-year period intervals. From the raw frequency scores collected, they were able to produce a frequency polygon. A frequency polygon is the best way to present data gathered from frequency tests because it shows the shape of distribution of measured variables (Lane, 2004). Apart from frequency tests, Suls and Rothman also used factor analysis test. Factor analysis is one of the most commonly used statistical tests in various disciplines. It is used to determine patterns of relationships between variables (Gorsuch, 1983). In the area of psychology, factor analysis is commonly applied in intelligence research but it can also be used in other areas, like personality, behavior, belief, and even theory assessment. In this instance, factor analysis was used to assess the attitude of health psychologists towards the biopsychosocial model. The biopsychosocial model is dependent on the interaction between the biological, psychological, and social factors within an individual (Suls and Rothman, 2004). Suls and Rothman theorized that health psychologists are more likely to focus heavily on the psychological factor alone in the biopsychosocial model (2004). Therefore they used factor analysis to measure the presence of all the factors in articles written within a 12-month period, November 2001-September 2002 in Health Psychology. This particular application is called confirmatory factor analysis. It is used when the concern is to determine the number of variables that conform to a pre-determined theory set (Gorsuch, 1983). The value of this test is to assess the validity of preconceived ideas. In the case of Suls and Rothman’s study, it is the leaning of health psychologists towards psychological factors to assess an individual’s health. The article of Suls and Rothman did not make use of any standardized psychological testing instruments. The reason may be due to the fact that it is a study aimed at determining the advancement of a framework of health assessment. However, they still integrated valuable statistical testing in psychology to explain clearly the findings they have gathered. Effectiveness of the Psychological Testing Instruments Used The main premise of Suls and Rothman’s article is that the biopsychosocial model has proven remarkably successful in shaping the way health psychologists view an individual’s overall functioning (Suls and Rothman, 2004). To prove this point, the team proceeded to measure the familiarity of the concept among health psychologists by reviewing published journals in Medline, and four other notable medical journals. The raw data collected was then subjected to different statistical tests commonly applied in the field of psychology. From there Suls and Rothman were able to formulate recommendations vital to the advancement of the biopsychosocial model as a valid instrument in health assessment. The effectiveness of psychological testing is based mainly on two factors, validity and reliability. Validity measures the soundness of a test against its set objectives. On the other hand reliability measures the accuracy of the test in terms of producing consistent results. To determine whether the result of psychological testing is effective, researchers usually turn to statistical tests. In this case where no standardized psychological testing instruments were used, the effectiveness of the study may be directly correlated with the quality of the results produced by the statistical tests used by Suls and Rothman. Suls and Rothman resorted to frequency test to explain their findings on the use of â€Å"biopsychosocial† as a term in medical journals. The test confirmed their initial assumption that the biopsychosocial model has helped in advancing health psychology in the last 25 years. The frequency test showed a consistent rise in the use of â€Å"biopsychosocial† as a term in medical journals. However, Suls and Rothman are quick to stress that this may also be due to the increase of the number of articles published that deal with behavior in recent years (2004). They also used frequency test to assess the integration of behavioral approach to medical science (Suls Rothman, 2004). The results attested as well to the increased integration of behavioral approaches to medical science in the last 30 years (Suls Rothman, 2004). Finally a factor analysis test was conducted to determine the reliance of health psychologists on the variables essential to the biopsychosocial model. The factor analysis test clearly showed that health psychologists are still biased in considering psychological issues over biological, and even social. This correctly proved the initial postulation of Suls and Rothman. Considering that the statistical tests in psychology used in the research of Suls and Rothman ably supported their theory, it can be said that they were effective. However, since the study is mostly a review of journals it is not enough to completely determine the actual advancement of the biopsychosocial model as a tool for health assessment. George Schwartz in his book suggested that the biopsychosocial model faces a challenge with the use of empirical testing (1982). Empirical testing is a vital component to any psychological research. Another is that the model remains a concept in research. It has yet to transcend from research to practice, then back to research (Keefe, Buffington, Studts Rumble, 2002). This is when the recommendations of Suls and Rothman become important. They were able to identify important areas that are tangible and measurable that will help in the transition of the model from a mere conceptual framework to a fully working tool in health assessment. As a stand-alone article, Suls and Rothman presented a thorough exposition of their chosen subject. However, based on the criteria of the article review, it did not meet the standards required. The fundamental component needed in the review is psychological testing in which the article did not have. On the other hand, the statistical tests were very helpful in understanding the basis of Suls’ and Rothman’s conclusion. Considering the statistical tests were properly chosen and used, it can be concluded that in the end the article of Suls and Rothman was a success. References Gorsuch, R. (1983). Factor analysis. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum Green, J. D’Oliveria, M. (1982). Learning to use statistical tests in psychology 3rd edition. NY: Open University. Keefe, F. , Buffington, A. , Studts, J. , Rumble, M. (2002). Behavioral medicine: 2002 and beyond. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 852-856. Lane, D. (2004, Augus 10). Frequency polygons. Connections. Retrieved August 25, 2010,

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Sainsbury’s Human Resources Management :: Human Resources Essays

I am going to explain is how the human resources department in Sainsbury’s recruit employees The functional areas at J Sainsbury’s are:-  · Human resources  · Finance  · Administration  · Production  · Marketing And Sales  · Customer Service Each functional area operates to support Sainsbury’s aims and objectives and a range of activities goes on in each one. How the functional areas interact with one another is important. For Sainsbury’s to be efficient and effective there has to be close links within different function areas, especially when their activities are related. Functional areas are important to Sainsbury’s as if there was no such thing, the business itself would fall apart. Here is a diagram to show how this would happen:- Human Resources: The first functional area of J Sainsbury I will be covering is Human resources. Human resources look after and employ the employees who work for Sainsbury’s. Human Resources regard staff as the most important resource for a successful business. If the employees are not motivated and only do the minimum work that is required, then all the products and services that’s Sainsbury’s offer would not make the business successful. If the employees are keen to do their best, are well trained and committed to the aims of Sainsbury’s, then Sainsbury’s will be successful. This is why the human resources department is so important. The Activities Of Human Resources Function: To fulfil its purpose, human resources staff are involved in certain activities. These include:- * Recruitment and dismissal of staff * Training and promotion of staff * Monitoring good working conditions * Health and safety * Employee organisations and trade unions The first section I am going to explain is how the human resources department in Sainsbury’s recruit employees. Recruiting applicants: This department in human resources is responsible for hiring new staff for J Sainsbury. The cost of hiring staff is expensive and if they make a mistake in employing the wrong staff that could cost them even more. The first stage is to identify the vacancy that is needed, e.g. new manager, new shelf stacker etc. After human resources have chosen their job vacancy they start to draw up a person specification of what is needed from the applicant e.g. essential skills, knowledge, qualities etc. They then need to decide which type of staff they would like. The different types are:- * Seasonal staff- working at a time when the business is busy in a seasonal time, e.g. Christmas * Temporary staff- working for a certain period of time set by the recruitment department to which if they think that an employee is good enough they might keep on. * Part time- only works a short amount of times/hours but is still

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Orthoses Intervention Essay

Presently, there exists a wide variety of various clinical interventions which are on the market based on personal interest, experience and skills of every clinician. Accordingly, it has become intricate for the therapist and also the patient to select the most efficient treatment for their specific problem. Since all the people who work in the health sector are involved in being answerable for providing best tools and options for the most efficient intervention, clinicians have a challenge treat their patients with the most efficient available intervention. Research hypothesis The hypothesis formulated for this research is: †¢ Orthoses are a clinically successful Podiatric Intervention Disease selected for the research background information A patient suffering from Charcot-Marie-Tooth sickness was prescribed for an ankle-foot orthoses to assist his gait. The patient was an ardent bicyclist and sought an evaluation of the impact of orthoses on his ardent bicycling activities, and also his gait. The impact of three ankle-foot orthoses on the joint angles when bicycling and walking and, ankle torque as well as production of power during walking processes as well as heart rate when bicycling were calculated. The quantitative impacts of every AFO on walking and bicycling workings are then discussed in relation to the patient’s inclination. Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) sickness is a genetic neuropathic illness which results in progressive degenerate of the muscles which are distal to the knee and commonly results in gait restrictions. Ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) devices have been used and revealed to have constructive impact on the gait of patients who are suffering from ankle muscle weakness, which includes restitution of heel strike, enhanced management of plantar flexion subsequent to foot strike, normalizing of heel rise, improved thrust for the period of push-off, stabilizing of the knee when in stance, and reduction in unusual hip and knee flexion in the process of swinging. The design of AFO might as well influence gait movement in patients who have CMT sickness. In the present study, we shall assess the effects of three different kinds of AFOs on joint angles when walking and also when bicycling, the ankle torque as well as power production when walking, and the heart rate in the course of bicycling for an individual suffering from CMT. The research also discusses the association amid these effects as well as the patient’s liking for AFO variety for walking as well as bicycling. Methodology Subsequent to manufacture and the patient was fitted with AFOs , the patient was later requested to use the AFO as much as he could for walking as well as bicycling, he was also asked to decide which one of the braces he had used he favored for each different activity. When a period of a bout one month elapsed during which the patient was using the devices, the gait of the patient was evaluated without AFO and also with the three different AFOs. Another period of two weeks elapsed and the patient’s bicycling activity was assessed without the AFO at first and then with the three different AFOs afterwards. Results Gait speed The resulted indicated that, the pace of walking on the ground was quicker when using the no-AFO state (1. 09 m/s), then the solid ankle AFO state followed with (1. 04 m/s), and this was followed by the posterior trim AFOs and the prefabricated AFO (1. 01 m/s). The usual self-chosen adult walking pace ranges between 1. 33 m/s and 1. 51 m/s, (Pierson-Carey et al, 1997) so the patient’s walking pace was slower compared to the normal pace. The variations in pace amongst the three AFO states as well as the no-brace state are minute, however using the AFOs might have reduced the patients walking pace a little. Joint angles The key distinction in joint angles happened at the joint of the ankle during swing point with the utilization of solid ankle as well as posterior trim AFOs. It was observed that the prefabricated AFO had slight consequence on ankle joint angles when contrasted with the no-AFO state. During a foot strike where an AFO was not used and when the prefabricated AFO was used the results were that the ankle of the patient was plantar flexed. In addition, there was just a small upward angulation position of the foot comparative to the floor (Table1). But, when posterior trim AFO as well as solid ankle AFO were used, the ankle joint of the patient was observed to b in dorsiflexion at point of the foot strike with an additional normal heel strike. Ankle torque A person’s internal ankle torque production is due to a different muscle activity in the body inactive broadening of tissue, as well as restrictions due to the AFO and also the shoe. Contrasted with usual gait, every state resulted in a lot lesser torque production for dorsiflexion as well as plantar flexion (Figure 1). It was observed that, the solid ankle and posterior trim AFO conditions both resulted in dorsiflexion torques of longer period following foot strike when contrasted with the no-AFO as well as the prefabricated AFO states produced results which were inline with the ankle joint angle outcomes, which revealed a lot of heel strike with solid ankle as well as posterior trim AFO. Discussion It is commonly accepted that putting on ankle foot orthosis (AFO) can result in a positive impact on the gait in patient suffering from hemiplegia. The orthoses assist in a number of functions in ambulation which includes controlling dorsiflexion and also plantarlexion in stance as well as swing stages of gait. In addition, AFOs are believed to steady the ankle in ankle’s transverse and frontal planes in times of gait activities and balance. Pierson-Carey, et al (1997) however, points out that, traditionally, a normal metal (Bicaal) AFOs have in the past been researched to additional asses clinical observation on joint stability among patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth who use these devices Lehmann, et al (1986) observes that, in the process of the mid stance as well as propulsion stages of gait of the patient, the no-AFO as well as posterior trim AFO states led in lesser values of plantar flexion torque being produced when compared to solid ankle AFO or even the prefabricated AFO states. When in the mid stance point of gait of the patient, the plantar flexors usually offer restrictions to forward movement of the tibia, while the foot of the patient remains rooted on the ground. In the propulsion stage the plantar flexors usually operate to bring fourth heel rise as well as plantar flexion of the patient. Solid ankle AFO as well as the prefabricated AFO were observed to be more efficient in offering plantar flexion torque (restriction to dorsiflexion) when in these stages. On the while the posterior trim AFO was formulated to give restriction to plantar flexion and not resist dorsiflexion, as a result it was not as efficient to provide to plantar flexion torque in these stages. Conclusions This research has concluded that, using the posterior trim as well as solid ankle AFOs when walking reduced the extreme hip and knee flexion of an individual. It also reduces the ankle plantar flexion in the process of swinging. However, there were no significant modifications during stance period. The patient in the case study was conscious of these encouraging transformations in his gait when using the AFOs. Nevertheless these transformations were not important enough to result in him using AFOs in every circumstance, and as such the patient used them merely in circumstances in when the look of his own gait was imperative to him only. When the patient indeed used AFOs for walking, the patient favored the posterior trim AFO compared to the solid ankle AFO since it fit him better than the posterior trim into his dress shoes. When cycling his bicycle, usage of the different AFOs reduced the inclination toward extreme dorsiflexion when performing the downward stroke and the solid ankle AFO was observed as the most efficient. Consequently the patient favored to using solid ankle AFO when cycling, however the patient did not detect any variation in the cycling speed on his normal road bicycle when using solid ankle AFO. However as Lehmann (1993) notes not any of the AFOs attested to be better in walking process or cycling activities, as such the patient favored to using dissimilar AFOs for these activities. More research would be required integrating diverse AFO designs, equipment, and positions, to establish if it is probable to formulate one particular AFO which optimizes the patient’s walking as well as bicycling effectiveness. Extra outcome procedures, which include oxygen expenditure and ankle power assessments when cycling, might assist to better discern amongst variations in performance which are attributed to the using of diverse AFOs.

Monday, January 6, 2020

The Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald - 1572 Words

The Great Gatsby, by F. Scott Fitzgerald, describes the story of those living within American society during the early 20th century. The idea of the American Dream became prominent during this time, often interpreted differently by each member of the society. According to James Truslow Adams in his 1931 book The Epic of America, the American Dream â€Å"is that dream of a land in which life should be better and richer and fuller for everyone, with opportunity for each according to ability or achievement†¦ a dream of social order in which each man and each woman shall be able to attain to the fullest stature of which they are innately capable, and be recognized by others for what they are, regardless of the fortuitous circumstances of birth or†¦show more content†¦His sole objective in life is to win back Daisy no matter what risks he had to take. When Gatsby finally meets Daisy after a long five years, Gatsby knows that â€Å"there must have been moments even that afternoon when Daisy tumbled short of his dreams - not through her own fault, but because of the colossal vitality of his illusion†(95). Even though Gatsby can see that Daisy was not exactly what he had hoped for, Daisy herself is still â€Å"his dream.† To Gatsby, it did not matter who Daisy actually was or what she looked like. Gatsby’s devotion shows that his goal in life is to be with Daisy once again. However, in order to fulfill a dream, it is insufficient to solely define it; hope is required as well. Hope is the emotion that starts every dream and aspiration, and drives us to continue to believe that we can achieve our dreams. Gatsby in this case has always been hopeful in pursuing his dream of reuniting with Daisy. The reason Gatsby strived to be wealthy and changed his own name was all because of Daisy. Nick, the narrator in the story, realizes the incredulous amount of hope that Gatsby has, and describes Gatsby as if â€Å"there was something gorgeous about him†¦ some heightened sensitivity to the promises of life†¦ an extraordinary gift for hope†¦ it is what preyed on Gatsby† (2). Gatsby’s